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厂家分析列管式冷凝器的温差应力解决方法

文章来源:未知时间:2019-06-28 点击:
 厂家分析列管式冷凝器的温差应力解决方法
 
  列管式冷凝器是为制冷系统的机件,属于换热器的一种,能把气体或蒸气转变成液体,将管子中的热量,以很快的方式,传到管子附近的空气中。列管式冷凝器工作过程是个放热的过程,所以列管式冷凝器温度都是较高的。发电厂要用许多冷凝器使涡轮机排出的蒸气得到冷凝。那在这个过程中要如何解决列管式冷凝器的温度应力差呢?在解决列管式冷凝器的温差应力通常情况下会在管外装置一系列垂直于管束的挡板,同时其管子和管板和外壳的连接都是刚性的,其管内管外时两种不同的温度的流体,当管壁与壳壁温差较大时,由于两者的热膨胀不同,产生了很大的温差应力,以至管子扭弯或使管子从管板上松脱,可能会毁坏冷凝器。
 
  Tube condenser is a part of refrigeration system, which belongs to a kind of heat exchanger. It can convert gas or vapor into liquid, and transfer heat from the tube to the air near the tube in a quick way. The working process of tubular condenser is an exothermic process, so the temperature of tubular condenser is higher. Power plants use many condensers to condense the steam from turbines. How to solve the temperature stress difference of tubular condenser in this process?
 
  In order to solve the temperature difference stress of tubular condenser, a series of baffles perpendicular to the tube bundle are usually installed outside the tube. At the same time, the connection between the tube and the tube sheet and the shell is rigid. When the temperature difference between the tube wall and the shell wall is large, the large temperature difference stress is produced due to the different thermal expansion between the tube wall and the shell wall, so that the tube is twisted or bended. The tube is loosened from the tube sheet and may damage the condenser.
 
  列管式冷凝器在使用时主要是用法兰合格外壳相连接,另一块管板不与外壳连接,以使管子受热或冷却时可以自由伸缩,但在这块管板上连接一个顶盖,称之为“浮头”,所以这种冷凝器叫做浮头式冷凝器。其优点是:管束可以拉出,以便清洗;管束的膨胀不变壳体约束,因而当两种换热器介质的温差大时,不会因管束与壳体的热膨胀量的不同而产生温差应力。
 
  In the use of tubular condenser, flange qualified shell is mainly used to connect, another tube plate is not connected with the shell, so that the tube can expand freely when heated or cooled. But in this tube plate, a top cover is connected, called "floating head", so this kind of condenser is called floating head condenser. Its advantages are: the tube bundle can be pulled out for cleaning; the expansion of the tube bundle is not constrained by the shell, so when the temperature difference between the two heat exchanger media is large, there will be no temperature difference stress due to the difference of the thermal expansion between the tube bundle and the shell.
 
  列管式冷凝器在运行时为了解决其温差应力,在进行操作时要有温差补偿装置,一般情况下会在管壁和壳壁的温度相差五十摄氏度以上的时候,冷凝器应有温差补偿装置。但补偿装置(膨胀节)只能用在壳壁与管壁温差低于六十至七十摄氏度和壳程流体压强不高的情况。
 
  In order to solve the temperature difference stress of tubular condenser when it is running, there should be a temperature difference compensation device in operation. Generally, when the temperature difference between tube wall and shell wall is more than 50 degrees Celsius, the condenser should have a temperature difference compensation device. However, the compensation device (expansion joint) can only be used when the temperature difference between the shell wall and the tube wall is less than 60 to 70 degrees Celsius and the fluid pressure along the shell side is not high.
 
  但是要注意,一般壳程压强超过0.6Mpa时由于补偿圈过厚,不好伸缩,失去温差补偿的作用,就应考虑其他结构。所以在列管式冷凝器的操作过程中都要注意这些问题哦。
 
  However, it should be noted that when the shell side pressure exceeds 0.6 Mpa, other structures should be considered because the compensating ring is too thick to expand and lose the function of temperature compensation. So we should pay attention to these problems in the operation of tubular condenser.
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